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Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu

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BJJ grapplersBrazilian Jiu-jitsu is a martial art derived from traditional Japanese Jiu-jitsu schools (the teachings of the Samurai) and refined in Brazil by the Gracie family to develop a distinct, modern form that is particularly concious of the ground-fighting aspect of combat situations. BJJ forms the grappling backbone of most modern MMA training.

Of particular interest in training, and welcome initial components in an open-source martial-arts textbook, are:

  • Understanding "phases of combat":  free-range phase, clinch phase, and ground phase
  • Positional advantage, positional relation hierarchy, overarching goal during combat to flow continually towards better positional relation (dominance/control)
  • Efficiency of movement, focus on relaxed flow, sensitivity to balance, understanding & application of mechanical advantage
  • Hold-downs & tie-ups
  • Intersection of Aikido philosophy with BJJ technique: exploring BJJ's options for self-defense applicaiton, modern-world imperatives, minimum use of force, intersection of Aikido standup & BJJ ground, theory comparison of atemi & submissions


  • Shrimping
  • Sprawling
  • "Gracie" Situps
  • "Judo" pushups
  • Belt climbing
  • Belly crawling
  • Frog-hopping
  • Lunges
  • Lying on back defensive drill ("keepaway" with the legs, touching the head game, getting up practice)
  • 4-points Drill
  • Leg pushups (partner balanced on feet)
  • Body-climbing drill
  • Flow drills
  • Tense takedown drill

The Clinch

  • Closing the distance (Clinching)
  • Clinch positions
  • Clinch submissions


  • Double leg
  • Single leg
  • Judo hip throw
  • Inside trip
  • Tomoe Nage (Sit-down backwards takedown)
  • Leg hook

Ground Positions

Rear mount position

Escapes, passes & sweeps

  • Escaping the Mount
    • Upward hip-lift ("buck and roll", "upa") escape
      • Arm around neck variation
    • Elbow-knee ("shrimp") escape
      • Foot drag
      • Foot lift
    • Mixed shrimp and buck drill
  • Stabilizing the Mount
  • Escaping side mount
    • Elbow knee (shrimping)
    • Spinout
    • Going to the knees
    • Escapes from scarf hold (kesa gatame)
  • Passing the Guard
    • Over the leg
    • Under the leg
  • Guard sweeps
    • Scissor
    • Knee push
    • Hip bump (hip lift arm sweep)
    • Flower
  • Stabilizing the Guard


  • Rear naked choke 
  • Triangle choke
  • Kimura
  • Cross-collar choke
  • Arm-bar
  • Americana
  • Anaconda

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