Shihonage is one of the first techniques taught in Aikido. Its name translates literally as "Four-direction throw", referring metaphorically to the 4 compass directions. The technique is usually referred to in English as "All-direction Throw" or "All-direction Pin" (depending on whether the Nage or Osae version is used). This name is derived from the fact that once Uke's arm is locked up, Sh'te has a wide choice in which direction Uke is thrown. The technique is probably overly complicated to work in a tight-one-on-one altercation with a single, prepared individual. However, the large flowing nature makes it potentially usefully with wilder or larger attacks, or during multi-person attacks where it may be desirable to throw one attacker into another.
The Ukemi, when the technique is performed slowly, is a modified back breakfall (called Koho Ukemi #4 under this system) in which a back breakfall is performed which falls nearly straight down (by bending at the knees, leaning in towards Sh'te to protect the elbow, and slightly hopping the legs out from under one as the back breakfall is performed). The alternate, more advanced Ukemi is a jumping front breakfall in which the arm is kept more straight as Sh'te shifts back around (putting more torque on the wrist but less on the elbow), and then doing a jumping front breakfall as Sh'te performs the Nage version of Shihonage.
The technique is the direct descendant of the Shumatsu Dosa Ichi and Ni (After-class exercise #1 & 2) basic movements. Each of the Ichi and Ni versions follows the corresponding Basic Movement during the Kihon Dosa To Kanren Waza sequence.
The two starting techniques are:
- Katate Mochi (One-wrist grasp) Shihonage Osae (All-direction Pin) Ichi (#1 - Pulling)
- Katate Mochi (One-wrist grasp) Shihonage Osae (All-direction Pin) Ni (#2 - Pushing)
These are demonstrated below by Chida Sensei.
Kihon Waza Forms
By Shodan (1st Degree black belt) Yoshinkan Aikido students are expected to be able to perform the following variations on Shihonage:
- Katate mochi Shihonage ichi & ni
- Ryote mochi Shihonage ichi & ni
- Yokomen uchi Shihonage ichi & ni
- Shomen uchi Shihonage
- Hanmi handachi Katate mochi Shihonage ichi & ni
- Hanmi handachi Ryote mochi Shihonage